The Life of Animals | Lemurs | Ranging in size from the 30 g (1.1 oz) Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, the world's smallest primate, to the recently Extinct 160-200 kg (350-440 lb) Archaeoindris fontoynonti lemurs evolved diverse forms of Locomotion, varying levels of social complexity, and unique adaptations to the local climate. Lemurs lack any shared traits That Make Them stand out from all other Primates. Different types of lemurs have evolved unique combinations of unusual traits to cope with Madagascar's harsh, seasonal climate.
Most of the approximately 100 species and subspecies of lemurs are either Threatened or endangered. Until recently, giant lemurs existed on Madagascar. Now Represented only by recent or subfossil Remains, They were the resource persons were the resource persons That once modern forms part of the rich diversity of lemurs That has evolved in isolation. Large parts of Madagascar, the which are now devoid of forests and lemurs, primates once hosted diverse communities That included more than 20 lemur species covering the full range of sizes lemurs.
Lemur behavior is as variable as lemurs morphology. Differences in diet, social systems, activity patterns, Locomotion, communication, predator avoidance tactics, breeding systems, and intelligence levels help define lemur taxa and individual species set apart from the rest. Although trends frequently distinguish the Smaller, nocturnal lemurs from the larger, diurnal lemurs, there are exceptions Often That help exemplify the unique and diverse nature of these Malagasy Primates. Lemur communication can be transmitted through sound, sight, and smell (olfaction). The ring-tailed lemurs, for instance, uses complex though highly stereotyped behaviors Such as scent-marking and vocalizations.
Olfaction is particularly Important to lemurs, except for the indri, the which lacks most common lemur scent glands and has a greatly reduced olfactory region in the brain. Small, nocturnal lemurs Their mark territories with urine, while the larger, diurnal species use scent glands located on Various Parts of Their anatomy. The ring-tailed lemurs engages in "stink fights" by rubbing its tail across scent glands on its wrists, and then flicking its tail at other male opponents. Latrine can Represent territorial marking behavior and aid in interspecies signaling
Compared to other Mammals,Primates in general are very vocal, and lemurs are no exception Some lemur species have extensive vocal repertoires, including the Ring-tailed Lemurs and ruffed lemurs. Some of the most common calls are lemurs Among predator alarm calls. Lemurs not only respond to alarm calls of Their own species, but also the alarm calls of other species and Those of non-predatory birds. The Ring-tailed Lemurs and A Few other species have different calls and reactions to specific types of predators. Ing with calls, it has been shown That mouse lemurs That can not be discerned Visually respond more strongly to the calls of Their own species, particularly exposed to the calls of other mouse lemurs That They would normally encounter within Lemurs calls Their home range can also be very loud and carry long distances.
Unlike anthropoid Primates, the lemurs grooming seems a to be more intimate and mutually, Often directly reciprocated. The Ring-tailed Lemur is known to be very tactile, spending the between 5 and 11% of its time grooming. Except for the aye-aye and the Lac Alaotra gentle lemur, lemurs are seasonal Breeders with very short birth seasons ing and highly influenced by the seasonal availability of resources in Their environment. Both in the aye-aye and Lac Alaotra gentle lemur, birth (parturition) Occurs over a six-month period.
Their time Lemurs birth and weaning seasons so That all periods are synchronized to match the time of highest food availability Occurs either before weaning or shortly after the Eruption of the first permanent molars in lemurs. Mouse lemurs are Able to fit Their entire breeding cycle into the wet season, whereas larger lemurs, sifakas Such as, the must lactate for two months During the dry season. Scent factors heavily into lemur reproduction. Monogamous lemurs include the red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) and the Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz), although the Mongoose Lemur has been observed outside of its pair bond. In mouse lemurs, males utilize sperm plugs, developed enlarged testes ing During the season, and develop size dimorphism (Likely due to the enlarged testes).
The gestation period varies within lemurs, ranging from 9 weeks in the mouse lemurs and dwarf lemurs in 9-10 weeks to 18-24 weeks in other lemurs. The Smaller, nocturnal lemurs, Such as mouse lemurs, giant mouse lemurs, dwarf lemurs and, usually give birth to more than one infant, whereas the larger, nocturnal lemurs, Such as fork-marked lemurs, sportive lemurs, and the aye-aye usually have one offspring Dwarf and mouse lemurs have up to four offspring, but Both averages only two. Ruffed lemurs are the only large, diurnal lemurs to consistently give birth to two or three offspring. All other lemurs have single births. Multiple births in lemurs are normally fraternal, and are known to occur in every five to six births in the species Such as the ring-tailed lemurs and some Eulemur.
Species That Park Their offspring include nocturnal species (eg mouse lemurs, sportive lemurs, and dwarf lemurs), bamboo lemurs, and ruffed lemurs. In the case of the ruffed lemurs, the young are altricial and the mothers Build Nests for Them, much like the Smaller, nocturnal lemur species Woolly lemurs are unusual for nocturnal lemurs Because They Live in cohesive family groups and carry with Them Their single offspring rather parking than Them. Alloparenting (multiple or group parenting) has been reported in all families except the sportive lemur lemurs and aye-aye.
Allonursing is also known to occur in Several lemur groups. Even males have been observed in caring for infants Such species as the red-bellied lemurs, Mongoose lemurs, eastern lesser bamboo lemur, silky sifaka, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, and ruffed lemurs. Yet another trait That sets apart from most lemurs Primates anthropoid Their long lifespan is together with Their high infant mortality. Many lemurs, including the Ring-Tailed Lemur, have adapted to a highly seasonal environment, the which has affected Their birthrate, maturation, and twinning rate (r-selection). In 1960, it was thought That Could lemurs live the between 23 and 25 years.